Binge Worthy

Are you familiar with Agile Methodology for creating websites or software products? In manufacturing, they call it “lean manufacturing.” It’s all about the process to improve lead time for production. That is where I hope to innovate. But I don’t want it to be disposable trash like “Reality TV” (bias showing there). Nor is it a location shoot. We have to set severe limitations. Creativity is the inverse of resources. the few resources you have the more you need creativity. Self-imposed limitation force creativity most. How to become a story factory? The perceived need is the binge watching phenomenon. Binge-watching is a relatively new behavior pattern. It’s popularity has been increasing since 2013. Ultimately to become one of the most popular ways of spending free time, especially among young people (18 to 39).

Binge-watching is defined as watching between two and six episodes of a story series in one sitting. The viewer does not have to wait a week for the release of the next episode.

People can binge-watch at any place, for example as they commute to work, using diverse electronic devices such as mobile phones, laptops, or tablets.

Most people binge-watch in solitude.

Another motivation for binge-watching is of a social nature. People binge-watch to make social connections, to become part of the group or the fandom, to feel accepted by their peers. Moreover, studies conducted by Shim and Kim show that people tend to have more motivation to binge-watch a TV series if it is recommended by others.

statistically significant relation between FOMO (fear of missing out) and the binge-watching phenomenon.high FOMO makes people binge-watch TV shows to avoid spoilers, which could potentially decrease the enjoyment of a series.

Exposure to advertisements during a binge-watching session discouraged people from viewing further on.

There is a significant correlation between binge-watching and motivation to deal with loneliness, thus TV series or fictional characters become viewer’s companions in solitude.

Binge-watching of TV series can be a strategy used to regulate negative and aversive emotions. It is a form of therapy to regulate their own emotions and to cope with their problems.

Binge-watching can be a highly immersive experience of transportation into the fictional world, which is usually related to high emotional and cognitive engagement with the narrative as well as identification with characters.

Individuals with higher motivation to complete the narration are less likely to regret the amount of time spent on binge-watching.

Narrative transportation theory proposes that when people lose themselves in a story, their attitudes and intentions change to reflect that story. The mental state of narrative transportation can explain the persuasive effect of stories on people, who may experience narrative transportation when certain contextual and personal preconditions are met, as Green and Brock postulate for the transportation-imagery model. As Van Laer, de Ruyter, Visconti, and Wetzels elaborate further, narrative transportation occurs whenever the story receiver experiences a feeling of entering a world evoked by the narrative because of empathy for the story characters and imagination of the story plot.

narrative transportation as a state of detachment from the world of origin that the story receiver—in his words, the traveler—experiences because of his or her engrossment in the story, a condition that Green and Brock later describe as the story receiver’s experience of being carried away by the story. Notably, the state of narrative transportation makes the world of origin partially inaccessible to the story receiver, thus marking a clear separation in terms of here/there and now/before, or narrative world/world of origin.

  1. Narrative transportation requires that people process stories—the acts of receiving and interpreting.
  2. Story receivers become transported through two main components: empathy and mental imagery. Empathy implies that story receivers try to understand the experience of a story character, that is, to know and feel the world in the same way. Thus, empathy offers an explanation for the state of detachment from the world of origin that is narrative transportation. In mental imagery, story receivers generate vivid images of the story plot, such that they feel as though they are experiencing the events themselves.
  3. When transported, story receivers lose track of reality in a physiological sense.
  1. an individual empathizes with the story characters and
  2. the story plot activates his or her imagination.

which leads him or her to experience suspended reality during story reception.

Transportation specifically entails empathy and mental imagery, which do not occur in flow experiences.

Immersion is primarily an experiential response to aesthetic and visual elements of images, whereas narrative transportation relies on a story with plot and characters, features that are not present in immersion. Identification emphasizes the involvement with story characters, while narrative transportation is concerned with the involvement with the narrative as a whole.

The transported “traveler” can return changed by the journey.

According to poststructural research, language’s articulation in narrative format is capable not only of mirroring reality but also of constructing it. As such, stories could cause profound and durable persuasion of the transported story receiver as a result of his or her progressive internalization. When stories transport story receivers, not only do they present a narrative world but, by reframing the story receiver’s language, they also durably change the world to which the story receiver returns after the transportation experience.

Research demonstrates that people analyze and retain stories differently from other information formats. For example, Deighton et al. show that analytical advertisements stimulate cognitive responses whereas narrative advertisements are more likely to stimulate affective responses.

Following this line of reasoning, Van Laer define narrative persuasion as

The effect of narrative transportation, which manifests itself in story receivers’ affective and cognitive responses, beliefs, attitudes, and intentions from being swept away by a story and transported into a narrative world that modifies their perception of their world of origin.

The conceptual distinction between analytical persuasion and narrative persuasion and the theoretical framework of sound interpretation of narrative persuasion both ground the extended transportation-imagery model (ETIM).

A story can engross the story receiver in a transformational experience, whose effects are strong and long-lasting.

ETIM contains three methodological factors that moderate the overall effect of narrative transportation. The narrative transportation effect is stronger.

  1. for stories in the commercial (vs. non-commercial) domain,
  2. for stories by users (vs. professionals), and
  3. for stories received alone (vs. with others).

Narrativity is the extent to which a media tells a story, which is a storyteller’s account of an event or a sequence of events leading to a transition from an initial state to a later state or outcome. There are four theoretical foundations of narrativity, represented by the notions of:

  1. narrative content,
  2. narrative discourse,
  3. narrative transportation, and
  4. narrative persuasion.

Narrative content and discourse are the linguistic antecedents of narrativity. Narrative content reflects the linear sequence of events as characters live through them—that is, the backbone and structure describing who did what, where, when, and why. Narrative discourse represents how the story is told—that is, storytellers’ use of literary devices to expand on the narrative content, such as emotional change over the course of the story line and sequencing of events to create drama. Narrative transportation is the engrossing, transformational experience of being swept away by a story. Narrative persuasion is the effect of narrative transportation, which manifests itself in story receivers’ positive attitudes toward the story, story-consistent attitudes toward the experience described therein, and story-consistent intentions. The higher the quality of narrative content and discourse in a text, the greater its narrativity and its real-world implications, such as narrative transportation and persuasion.

The theory of narrativity

The extent to which story receivers experience narrative transportation and are “lost” in the narrative world depends on the level of narrativity of a text. Narratologists distinguish two components of narrativity: content and discourse. The difference between narrative content and narrative discourse is the difference between what is conveyed and how it is conveyed. The features of narrative content align with the structural components of a story (i.e., characters and events). Literary devices, which grant storytellers the power to frame the narrative, are associated with narrative discourse. Variations in these narrative elements affect transportation into the narrative and subsequent persuasion, as the theory of narrativity proposes.

Self-revelatory stories, created for their cathartic and therapeutic effect.

For example: a hero proposes a journey to a dangerous place / he disguises himself / his disguise fools everybody / except for a common person of little account (a crone, a tavern maid or a woodcutter) / who immediately recognizes him / the commoner becomes the hero’s ally, showing unexpected resources of skill or initiative. A theme does not belong to a specific story, but may be found with minor variation in many different stories.

fill “story vacuums”

Every story has 3 parts. First, The setup (The Hero’s world before the adventure starts). Second, The Confrontation (The hero’s world turned upside down). Third, The Resolution (Hero conquers villain, but it’s not enough for Hero to survive. The Hero or World must be transformed). Any story can be framed in such format.

Teach children to have respect for all life, value inter-connectedness and always work to overcome adversity.

Therapeutic storytelling is the act of telling one’s story in an attempt to better understand oneself or one’s situation. Oftentimes, these stories affect the audience in a therapeutic sense as well, helping them to view situations similar to their own through a different lens.

…this process provides new avenues for understanding and identity formation. Language is utilized to bear witness to their lives.

— Elaine Lawless

Sometimes a narrator will simply skip over certain details without realizing, only to include it in their stories during a later telling. In this way, that telling and retelling of the narrative serves to “reattach portions of the narrative”. These gaps may occur due to a repression of the trauma or even just a want to keep the most gruesome details private. Regardless, these silences are not as empty as they appear, and it is only this act of storytelling that can enable the teller to fill them back in.

Correlation between the rise in binge-viewing habits and our desire to escape a never-ending sea of bite-sized social media posts and YouTube videos. He explains:

TV viewers are no longer zoning out as a way to forget about their day, they are tuning in, on their own schedule, to a different world. Getting immersed in multiple episodes or even multiple seasons of a show over a few weeks is a new kind of escapism that is especially welcomed today.

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